Kinds of Tense – How Many Types of Tense?

The Tense stands for a verb form or series of verb Tense used to express a time relation. There are three types, Present, Past, and Future.

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English Grammar – Tense – Chapter-1

TENSE

The Tense stands for a verb form or series of verb Tense used to express a time relation (Tense occurs as a verb or verb used to express a time relationship for a series of tenses.)

There are three types of Tense

  • Present Tense
  • Past Tense
  • Future Tense

Every Tense has Four Types

See below all the four types of Present Tense.

Present Tense 1.      Present Indefinite or Simple Present Tense

2.      Present Imperfect / Continuous or Progressive Tense

3.      Present Perfect Tense

4.      Present Perfect Continuous Tense

 

Now we will study all these Tense in different detail.

1. Present Indefinite or Simple Present Tense

In the ending of the verb of a Hindi sentence ता हूँ, ती हूँ, ते हैं, ते हो, ती हो, ता है, ती है, रहता है That verb is often translated into Present Indefinite or Simple Present Tense.

Rules of Translation – After the subject comes to the basic form of the verb. But if the subject lives in Third Person Singular Number then s/es is added to the verb.

(Subject + Verb)              

Person Subject in Singular Number Subject in Plural Number
First Person

Second Person

Third Person

I am/I have/ I eat.

You are/You have/You eat

He is/ He has/ He eats.

We are/We have/We eat.

You are/You have/ You eat.

They are/ They have/ They eat

 

In place of He, She, It, or any Singular Subject can come. And any Plural Subject can come in place of them.

When am/is/are/she/have/has is used as Main Verb, then it becomes necessary to come after Noun or any other Complement?

Example – I eat, We read, You play, She reads, Mohan and Sohan read, They know.

2. Present Imperfect / Continuous or Progressive Tense

At the end of the verb of this tense in Hindi sentences रहा हूँ / रही हूँ / रहे हो / रहे हैं / रहा है / रही हो / रहता है and no past tense indicative word is used before it.

Rules of Translation – For translation, am/is/are is given after the subject. and then V+ing.

(Subject + am/is/are + V-ing)

Person Subject in Singular Number Subject in Plural Number
First Person

Second Person

Third Person

I am eating.

You are going.

He/she/it/Ram is reading.

We are eating.

You are going.

They are reading.

 

This Tense is used to understand the Immediate Present /Now. That is, the action is being completed while speaking or writing in the present time.

It is also used to make sense of the work being done or going on which is not being done immediately. but is happening around the desired time or these days.

This tense is also used to express the intention or possibility to do a future program/plan and action.

Example – I am reading, He is reading English these days, She is coming tomorrow, I have been reading since morning, you are going to school, The boys are playing.

3. Present Perfect Tense

At the end of the Hindi verb चूका हूँ, चुकी हूँ, चुके हैं, चुके हो, चूका है, चुकी है, रहता है अथवा या हूँ, इ हूँ, ए है, या है, ए हो, या है, रहता है That verb is translated into Present Perfect Tense.

Example – I have eaten, We have played, You have done it, The sun has risen.

Rules of Translation – Translation of such verbs in English is done by have/has+ V³. When the subject resides in the Third Person Singular Number, then has + V³ appears. And with all other subjects have + V³.

(Subject + have/has + V³)

Person Subject in Singular Number Subject in Plural Number
First Person

Second Person

Third Person

I am eaten.

You have eaten.

He/she/it/Ram has eaten.

We have eaten.

You have eaten.

They/ The boys have eaten.

 

This Tense is used to denote an action that has ended in the past but has an effect or relation to the present time.

Example – I have eaten. The work of eating has ended in the past, but its influence is still present. That is, the stomach is full and there is no desire to eat yet.

4. Present Perfect Continuous Tense

With the action of Present Perfect Continuous Tense, it is understood that the work which started in the past is still going on.

At the end of hindi verb ता रहा हूँ, ती रही हूँ, ता रहा है, ते रहे हो, ते रहे है रहता है Then these verbs are translated into Present Perfect Continuous Tense.

Example – I have been eating, He has been reading.

If at the end of Hindi verbs रहा हूँ, रही हूँ, रहे हैं, रही है, रहे हो, रही हो, रहा है, रहता है And before this, there are past tense words such as, from one hour, two hours, two years, since morning, from 10 o’clock, etc., then these verbs are translated in Present Perfect Continuous Tense.

Example – I have been reading since morning.

Rules of Translation – The sentence of this tense has the structure of subject + verb and in some sentences for/since is used before the time words.

(Subject + have/has been + V-ing.)

Person Subject in Singular Number Subject in Plural Number
First Person

Second Person

Third Person

I have been eating.

You have been eating.

He/she/it/Ram has been eating.

We have been eating.

You have been eating.

They have been eating.

This Tense is mainly used to denote an action that started in the past and is still going on. Example – I have been living in this town for five years.

There are also four different types of Past & Future Tense, To read its four types, go to Chapter-2 & 3. or Click on the link given below.

Past Tense Link

Thank You

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